Alcohol abuse damage in neurones at a molecular scale identified for first time

Posted on June 17, 2014

Joint research between the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) and the University of Nottingham has identified, for the first time, the structural damage caused at a molecular level to the brain by the chronic excessive abuse of alcohol. In concrete, the research team has determined the alterations produced in the neurones of the prefrontal zone of the brain (the most advanced zone in terms of evolution and that which controls executive functions such as planning, designing strategies, working memory, selective attention or control of behaviour. This research opens up pathways for generating new pharmaceutical drugs and therapies that enhance the life of alcoholic persons and reduce the morbimortality due to alcoholism.

In the research, doctors Luis F. Callado, Benito Morentin and Amaia Erdozain, from the UPV/EHU, together with doctor Wayne G. Carter's team from the University of Nottingham, analysed the postmorten brains of 20 persons diagnosed with alcohol abuse/dependence, alongside another 20 non-alcoholic brains.

Studying the prefrontal cortex, researchers detected alterations in the neuronal cytoskeleton in the brains of alcoholic patients; in concrete, in α and β tubulin and the β II spectrin proteins. These changes in the neuronal structure, induced by ethanol ingestion, can affect the organisation, the capacity for making connections and the functioning of the neuronal network, and could largely explain alterations in cognitive behavior and in learning, attributed to persons suffering from alcoholism.

The description of damage and alterations, now detected for the first time at a molecular level in the prefrontal zone of the brain, is the first step for investigation in other fields. Highlighted amongst the new targets put forward is to elucidate the concrete mechanism by which alcohol produces these alterations - to determine what the possible changes that the enzymes responsible for regulating the functioning of these proteins undergo, and to see if these processes also occur in other parts of the brain, for example, those controlling motor function.

The final objective is to identify these molecular changes in order to be able to, on the one hand, link them with the processes of alcohol abuse and dependence and, on the other, generate new pharmaceutical drugs and therapeutic options that reverse the alterations produced by alcohol, enhancing the quality of life of alcoholic persons and reducing the mortality rate due to alcoholism.


Category(s):Addictions

Source material from University of the Basque Country


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